Skip to main content

Raymond G. Carey Collection on Sand Creek Massacre

Identifier: M045


Raymond Carey (1901-1972), professor of history at the University of Denver, Denver, Colorado from 1945 to 1971, conducted research on the massacre at Sand Creek, Colorado, which took place on November 29, 1864. In this incident, the troops of the Colorado Third Volunteer Regiment, commanded by Colonel John M. Chivington, attacked a group of 500 Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians who were encamped on the banks of the Sand Creek, about 40 miles from Fort Lyon, near the present-day town of Lamar. Over 150 Indians were killed, including many women and children. Although Chivington and his benefactor, Governor John Evans, were lauded as heroes in Denver, where anti-Indian sentiment ran high, the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Army were less impressed, and both launched investigations into the incident. No indictments were made, however Chivington was forced to resign his Army commission, and Evans was forced to resign kos concurrent appointments as Territorial Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The incdent remains one of the most controversial events in the history of Indian-white relations, despite an official apology issued by Colorado's then-Governor in 2014.


  • 1950-1971


Language of Materials

Materials are primarily in English.

Biographical / Historical

Raymond Giddens Carey was born February 17, 1901, in Iola, Kansas. He received his bachelor's degree in 1923 from Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas. He was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship, and attended Hertford College of Oxford University, Oxford, England, from which he received a second bachelor's degree in 1927 and a master's degree in 1931. He received his Ph.D. in 1945 from the University of Chicago. In 1942, he married Faye Kingsbury of Evansville, Indiana. They had two children, Raymond Carey, Jr., and Cynthia Carey. Carey came to the University of Denver in 1945. He served as chairman of the University's history department from 1945 to 1958, and was on the faculty until his retirement in 1971. Carey's field of interest was modern European history, with special emphasis on French history, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era, and English history of the 16th and 17th centuries. Closer to home, he studied the Sand Creek Massacre, which took place in Colorado in 1864. Upon his retirement, he was named Professor Emeritus. Carey died on November 25, 1972. Two scholarships for history majors, the Raymond G. Carey Memorial Scholarships, were endowed in his memory.


4 Linear Feet (6 letter document boxes, 1 microfilm box)

Scope and Contents

This collection contains research conducted by Professor Carey regarding the Sand Creek massacre of 1864, including bibliographies, notes, maps, military records, regimental data, correspondence, journal articles, and copies of photographs related to Carey's research on the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre in Colorado. A large proportion of the papers pertain to individuals involved in the events of that day and are organized alphabetically by last name. Carey's notes, bibliographic cards, journal articles and correspondence concerning Sand Creek are also included. Most of the material consists of photocopies of microform copies of documents held by various other repositories.


The collection is organized into four series:; 1. Research Materials on the Sand Creek Incident.; 2. Research Materials on Individuals.; 3. Publications and Source Materials.; 4. Microfilms of Sand Creek Related Documents.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gift of Mrs. Faye Carey, August 20, 1973


No further accruals are expected.

Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description
Code for undetermined script

Repository Details

Part of the Special Collections and Archives Repository

2150 East Evans Avenue
Denver CO 80208
(303) 871-3428